Stem Cell Therapy | PRP Injections - Denver, Colorado

Knowledge Base

Medical Terminology Glossary

Adult stem cells

Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells found throughout the body that divide to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues. Also known as somatic stem cells, they can be found in children, as well as adults.

Autologous

(of cells or tissues) obtained from the same individual.

Astrocyte

a star-shaped glial cell of the central nervous system.

Adipose

(especially of body tissue) used for the storage of fat.

A2M

information coming soon.

Blastocyst

a blastula in which some differentiation of cells has occurred.

Bone marrow stromal cells

the connective tissue cells of bone

Cardiomyocytes

heart muscle cells

Cytoplasm

Cytoplasm is a thick solution that fills each cell and is enclosed by the cell membrane. It is mainly composed of water, salts, and proteins. In eukaryotic cells, the cytoplasm includes all of the material inside the cell and outside of the nucleus.

Chromosome

Chromosomes are thread-like structures located inside the nucleus of animal and plant cells. Each chromosome is made of protein and a single molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Passed from parents to offspring, DNA contains the specific instructions that make each type of living creature unique.

Differentiation

A cell that can differentiate into all cell types of the adult organism is known as pluripotent. Such cells are called embryonic stem cells in animals and meristematic cells in higher plants. A cell that can differentiate into all cell types, including the placental tissue, is known as totipotent.

Fibroblast

a cell in connective tissue that produces collagen and other fibers.

Hematopoietic

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) or hemocytoblasts are the stem cells that give rise to all the other blood cells through the process of haematopoiesis. They are derived from mesoderm and located in the red bone marrow, which is contained in the core of most bones.

Heterologous

derived from a different organism.

Homologous

derived from the same organism.

Morphology

the branch of biology that deals with the form of living organisms, and with relationships between their structures.

Mesenchymal

multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types.

Nucleus

the central and most important part of an object, movement, or group, forming the basis for its activity and growth.

Neural stem cell

Neural stem cells (NSCs) are self-renewing, multipotent cells that generate the main phenotype of the nervous system. Stem cells are characterized by their capability to differentiate into multiple cell types via exogenous stimuli from their environment.

Neurons

a specialized cell transmitting nerve impulses; a nerve cell.

Parthenogenesis

reproduction without fertilization.

Plasticity

the adaptability of an organism to changes in its environment or differences between its various habitats.

Pluriopotent

(of an immature or stem cell) capable of giving rise to several different cell types.

Proliferation

rapid reproduction of a cell, part, or organism.

Progenitor cells

A progenitor cell is a biological cell that, like a stem cell, has a tendency to differentiate into a specific type of cell, but is already more specific than a stem cell and is pushed to differentiate into its "target" cell.

Regenerative medicine

Regenerative medicine is a branch of translational research in tissue engineering and molecular biology which deals with the "process of replacing, engineering or regenerating human cells, tissues or organs to restore or establish normal function.

RNA

Ribonucleic acid, or RNA is one of the three major biological macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life (along with DNA and proteins).

Self renewal

Self-renewal is the process by which stem cells divide to make more stem cells, perpetuating the stem cell pool throughout life. Self-renewal is division with maintenance of the undifferentiated state.

Scientific method

a method of procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses.

Somatic stem cells

Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells found throughout the body that divide to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues. Also known as somatic stem cells, they can be found in children, as well as adults.

Stem cells

an undifferentiated cell of a multicellular organism that is capable of giving rise to indefinitely more cells of the same type, and from which certain other kinds of cell arise by differentiation.

Transdifferentiation

Transdifferentiation, also known as lineage reprogramming, is a process where one mature somatic cell transforms into another mature somatic cell without undergoing an intermediate pluripotent state or progenitor cell type.

Trophoblast

Trophoblasts (from Greek trephein: to feed, and blastos: germinator) are cells forming the outer layer of a blastocyst, which provide nutrients to the embryo and develop into a large part of the placenta.

Tissue

any of the distinct types of material of which animals or plants are made, consisting of specialized cells and their products.